Designers of e-commerce applications need to create usable and efficient sites that allow users to find the products they are looking for with ease and with minimum effort. At the same time e-commerce systems need to convey an organisations' brand identity and build user trust. Our research on e-commerce is focused on the potential trade-off decisions that are required in pursuing these goals. We use eye-tracking to measure the effect of design decisions on user's behaviour on an atomic level. To research effects on user trust, we adapt methods from experimental economics.



  1. Jens Riegelsberger, M. Angela Sasse & John D. McCarthy (2005). The Mechanics of Trust: A Framework for Research and Design. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 62(3), 381-422 [PDF (via ScienceDirect)].
  2. John D. McCarthy, M. Angel Sasse & Jens Riegelsberger (2004). The Geometry of Web Search. Proceedings of HCI2004, 6-10 Sep 2004, Leeds, UK.
  3. J.Riegelsberger, M. A. Sasse & J. D. McCarthy (2003). Trust at First Sight? A Test of Users' Ability to Identify Trustworthy e-Commerce Sites. Proceedings of HCI2003, 8-12 Sep 2003, Bath, UK, pp. 243-260.
  4. J. D. McCarthy, M. A. Sasse & J. Riegelsberger (2003). Can I have the Menu Please? An Eyetracking Study of Design Conventions. Proceedings of HCI2003, 8-12 Sep 2003, Bath, UK, pp. 401-414. [PDF]
  5. J. Riegelsberger, M. A. Sasse & J. McCarthy (2003). Shiny Happy People Building Trust? Photos on E-Commerce Websites and Consumer Trust. Proceedings of CHI2003, 5-10 April 2003, Ft. Lauderdale, FL, US. [PDF]
  6. J. Riegelsberger (2003). Interpersonal Cues and Consumer Trust in E-commerce . CHI2003 Doctoral Consortium, Extended Abstracts CHI2003, 5-10 April, Ft. Lauderdale, FL, US. [PDF]
  7. J. Riegelsberger (2002). The Effect of Facial Cues on Trust in e-Commerce Systems. HCI 2002 Doctoral Consortium, Proceedings of HCI 2002, Volume II, Sept. 2-6, London, UK, pp. 234-235. [PDF]
  8. J. Riegelsberger & M. A. Sasse (2002). Face it - Photos don’t make a Web Site Trustworthy. Extended Abstracts CHI2002, 20-25 April, Minneapolis, MN, pp. 742-743. [PDF]
  9. J. Riegelsberger & M. A. Sasse (2001). Trustbuilders and trustbusters: The role of trust cues in interfaces to e-commerce applications. 1st IFIP Conference on e-commerce, e-business, e-government (i3e). Oct. 3-5 2001, Zurich, Switzerland, pp. 17-30. [PDF]


  1. J. D. McCarthy, J. Riegelsberger, & M. A. Sasse (2005). Position Paper: Commercial Uses of Eye-tracking. HCI 2005 Workshop on Commercial Uses of Eye-Tracking, 05 September 2005, Edinburgh, UK. [PDF]
  2. J. Riegelsberger (2005). Trust in Mediated Interactions. PhD Thesis University College London, 27 June 2005. [PDF (2.9 MB)].
  3. J. Riegelsberger, M. A. Sasse (2003). Designing E-Commerce Applications for Consumer Trust. In O. Petrovic, M. Ksela, M. Fallenböck, C. Kittl (Eds.). Trust in the Network Economy. Wien, New York: Springer, pp. 97-110. [Abstract]
  4. J. Riegelsberger & M. A. Sasse (2000). "Trust Me, I'm a .com": Reassuring shoppers in electronic retail environments. Intermedia, Vol. 28, No 4 - June 2000.

This page was last modified on 28 Dec 2010.